Short Title:Food Formulations
Full Title:Food Formulations
Module Code:FOOD H1001
 
Credits: 10
NFQ Level:8
Field of Study:Food processing
Module Delivered in 1 programme(s)
Reviewed By:JOHN BEHAN
Module Author:ED CAREY
Module Description:This course will help to demonstrate the understanding of the behaviours and nutritional values of food materials as well as physical properties of a wide range of foods. The module focuses on food ingredients of greatest commercial interest in the current marketplace. Factors affecting the functions and applications of these ingredients in food products will be examined.
Learning Outcomes
On successful completion of this module the learner will be able to:
LO1 Describe the functions of ingredients of commercial interest in food production.
LO2 Evaluate the functional properties of various food components and/or ingredients
LO3 Evaluate the impact of processing and end product environment on the functionality of selected ingredients
LO4 Evaluate different food ingredients, processing aids, additives and the effects of processing in relation to the texture, colour, flavour and quality of a range of products.
LO5 Describe the interactions of food components and the effects of processing and end product environment on the organoleptic and nutrition properties of a range of food products
LO6 Design formulations for a range of value-added food products
Pre-requisite learning
Co-requisite Modules
No Co-requisite modules listed
 

Module Content & Assessment

Content (The percentage workload breakdown is inidcative and subject to change) %
Food Products & Ingredients Overview
An introduction to food product formulation and the functional and nutrition roles of the major commercial ingredients in food formulations. Dairy Products (milk, yogurts, butter, dairy spreads, cheeses; infant formulae); Dairy Ingredients (milk powders & hydrolysed milk powders); Meat, fish and ingredients derived from meat and fish; Baked goods and ingredients derived from cereals and grains. Vegetables and pulses and ingredients derived from these sources. Food micronutrients (vitamins & minerals) and food additives (emulsifiers, stabilisers, anti-oxidants, thickeners, preservatives and salt).
10.00%
Functional properties of ingredients in food applications
Description of the physiochemical and functional properties of food proteins, carbohydrates, fats and food additives. Explanations and examples of how functional properties determine the applications of food ingredients. Investigation of functionality will cover organoleptic (colour, flavour, and odour), kinaesthetic (texture, mouth feel, grittiness), hydration (solubility, wettability, viscosity) and stability (emulsifying, foaming, binding) properties. The effects of processing and storage on food ingredient functionality and food product quality will be explored. Relevant factors include the intrinsic properties of food components, the chemical composition of food products including moisture content, and the pH, temperature exposure, and shear forces during processing, distribution and storage.
15.00%
Dairy & Egg Protein Ingredients & Commercial Applications
The composition of milk and the properties and applications of commercial milk powders: Whole and skim milk powder, whey powders (WP, WPC, WPI), casein and caseinates and milk protein hydrolysates. The use of yogurt, cheese and egg powders in food product formulation. Recent advances in the commercial application of bioactive peptides.
15.00%
Meat and fish and meat/fish-derived ingredients
An exploration of the functional properties of fish, red meats, poultry meats and pig meats in value-added food products. The effects of processing (mincing, forming, cooking and drying) and value adding technologies (e.g. sous vide; vaccum packing) on the functionality of meat and fish-based formulations. Explanations and examples of the commercial applications meat and fish-derived protein ingredients (e.g. gelatine) and meat-substitutes (e.g. tofu). Definition of Halal and Kosher meat ingredients.
15.00%
Starches, flours and grains
Functional properties of wheat, barley, oat and other commercial grains and effects of processing (milling, separation, drying, malting, baking) on functionality. Commercial applications of grain-derived carbohyrates and protein ingredients. Challenges and examples of gluten-free product formulation. Low glycemic index (GI) vs. high GI baked goods. The use of High Fructose Corn Syrup as a sweetening agent (- an introduction to the fructose debate). Soluble fibre and the applications of prebiotics.
10.00%
Vegetable, Fruit, Nuts & Seed ingredients
Effects of processing on the functional and nutrition properties of vegetables. Manufacture and applications of vegetable-derived ingredients (e.g. plant oils, freeze-dried vegetables). Discussion of sustainability issues of plant oil ingredients (e.g. palm oil). Definition and discussion of organic foods. Seeds and nuts in baked goods and energy bars.
10.00%
Food Fats
The use of fats in baked goods. Explanation of the biochemical and functional effects of the hydrogenation of fats and health impliations of trans fats in food products. Fat replacement in food formulations and changes in the understanding of the dietary role of fats. Properties of dairy fats and applications in ice cream and dairy spreads. Applications of emulsifers.
5.00%
Functional foods/ Nutraceuticals
Formulation of nutraceuticals (ingredients/foods that deliver additional or enhanced benefits over and above their basic nutritional value). Commercial applications and regulatory issues. Approaches to vitamin and mineral fortification and the use of prebiotics and probiotics in dairy and other foods. Formulation of Sports drinks and Sports protein supplements.
15.00%
Food additives
Organoleptic, nutrition and regulatory aspects of salt as a food additive. Classification and applications of permitted colours and flavourings. Comparison of food sweeteners. Examples of the humectants, stabilisers, anti-oxidants, emulsifers, foaming agents and thickeners.
5.00%
Assignments/Course work
Project work will be designed to encourage supplemental reading on food formulations and to expand knowledge of recent commercial trends in value-added food products and ingredients. The project in this module will be delivered to link with learning in Food Processing, Food Safety and Product Development modules and to contribute to the development of generic skills (presentation skills; information sourcing). In-class and online quizzes will be used to drive continuous incremental learning and for re-enforcement of key concepts.
0.00%
Assessment Breakdown%
Course Work50.00%
End of Module Formal Examination50.00%
Course Work
Assessment Type Assessment Description Outcome addressed % of total Assessment Date
Laboratory Application of key ingredients and exploration of the effects of processing 1,3 15.00 Week 10
Continuous Assessment In-class or online quizzes; Project & project presentation 1,3 35.00 Week 6
End of Module Formal Examination
Assessment Type Assessment Description Outcome addressed % of total Assessment Date
Formal Exam End-of-Semester Final Examination 1,2,3,4,5,6 50.00 End-of-Semester
Reassessment Requirement
Repeat examination
Reassessment of this module will consist of a repeat examination. It is possible that there will also be a requirement to be reassessed in a coursework element.

IT Tallaght reserves the right to alter the nature and timings of assessment

 

Module Workload

Workload: Full Time
Workload Type Workload Description Hours Frequency Average Weekly Learner Workload
Lecture Theory around food ingredients and formulations 3.00 Every Week 3.00
Laboratories Application of key ingredients and exploration of the effects of processing 8.00 Twice per semester 1.07
Independent Learning Study and additional reading to build on lecture-derived material; Developing knowledge of commercial food products through manufacturer websites and retail studies. Research and preparation of project; Reading recommended research articles to inform understanding; Study for in-class or online CAs; Exam study. The information covered in this module should be correlated with information studied in related modules (Food Processing; Food Safety; Product Development) 9.50 Every Week 9.50
Total Weekly Learner Workload 13.57
Total Weekly Contact Hours 4.07
Workload: Part Time
Workload Type Workload Description Hours Frequency Average Weekly Learner Workload
Lecture Theory around food ingredients and formulations 3.00 Every Week 3.00
Laboratories Application of key ingredients and exploration of the effects of processing 8.00 Twice per semester 1.07
Independent Learning Study and additional reading to build on lecture-derived material; Developing knowledge of commercial food products through manufacturer websites and retail studies. Research and preparation of project; Reading recommended research articles to inform understanding; Study for in-class or online CAs; Exam study. The information covered in this module should be correlated with information studied in related modules (Food Processing; Food Safety; Product Development) 9.50 Every Week 9.50
Total Weekly Learner Workload 13.57
Total Weekly Contact Hours 4.07
 

Module Resources

Required Book Resources
  • Hui Y. H 2012, Handbook of Meat and Meat Processing, Second Edition, CPC Press
  • Shewy P.R., Lazzeri P.A., Edwards K. J 2001, Botanical Research, Biotechnology of Cereals, Volume 34, Volume 34, Academic Press
  • Sinha Kirmal K, Handbook of Vegetable and Vegetable Processing, First Edition, Wiley-Blackwell
  • Damodaran, S., Parkin, K.L. and Fennema, O.R 2007, Fennema‚Äôs Food Chemistry, 4th Ed., CRC Press
Required Article/Paper Resources
  • n/a, Selected current relevant articles from Trends in Food Science and Technology and Food Research International.
Other Resources
 

Module Delivered in

Programme Code Programme Semester Delivery
TA_SFSCT_HD Higher Diploma in Food Science and Technology 1 Mandatory